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Purpose – To explore the strategy literature to identify scholars who have developed specific models of strategy.

Design/Approach - An extensive review of the literature was undertaken.

Findings – The Modernist ideas of several scholars who have developed methods or concepts for delineating the ideas of strategy are discussed. A body of economic theory is mentioned but is beyond the scope of this paper.

Practical implications – We must move on from the eighteenth century economic concepts, especially the equilibrium assumption if we are to develop the strategy discipline.

Originality/value – Very little work, especially in strategy has been done outside the Modernist paradigm (Parker, 2002). This paper explores the possibility of incorporating open system ideas into a strategic methodology.

Keywords - Strategy, Critical Management Studies (CMS), Epistemology, Positivist, Modernist, Postmodernist, Frankfurt School, Cybernetic Systems, Complex Self-adapting Systems.

The Reflective Frame

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